Lung Cancer: Types, Stages, Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis & Treatment, Cost

Lung Cancer ranks as the most frequently diagnosed cancer in men and holds the position of being the 2nd most prevalent cancer among women. The prevalence of lung cancer accounts for 8.1% of all cancer-related deaths. Lung cancer mostly affects people who smoke, especially if they have smoked for a long time. Here we will know about lung cancer treatment.

Lungs are the organs in our body located on either side of the heart, keeping our body healthy by giving us the oxygen needed to function properly.

Lung cancer originates when cells within the lungs multiply wildly, resulting in tumours. These abnormal cells disrupt normal lung function, negatively impacting oxygen supply and respiration, which leads to health issues and low oxygen levels.

Lung cancer is an extremely serious illness that damages the lungs and can be caused by several factors, the primary cause of which is smoking. Tobacco use and pollution, both contribute to the rise in cases of Lung cancer.

Non-smokers, on the other hand, are at risk for lung cancer as a result of other factors such as indirect smoke exposure, polluted air, or a family history of cancer.

Types of Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is a complicated disease with many subtypes requiring specialised evaluation and treatment approaches.

Different types of lung cancer are:

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC): NSCLC is responsible for 80-85% of the cases of lung cancer and is further divided into many different subgroups. Among the most widespread are:

  • Adenocarcinoma: This type of lung cancer often begins in the lungs’ outermost areas and is more common in individuals who don’t smoke or regularly smoke. It happens because of certain changes in the genes.
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Squamous cell carcinoma is a type of lung cancer that develops in the middle bronchi and is commonly linked to a history of smoking. A biopsy is carried out to diagnose it.
  • Large Cell Carcinoma: This is a very rare type of lung cancer that may appear anywhere in the lung. It is less common than other kinds, yet it expands and grows quickly.

Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC): SCLC is an uncommon lung cancer responsible for around 10 to 15% of all cases. SCLC tumor cells grow very quickly, and it is linked to smoking. It spreads fast to other places of the body, making it difficult to treat.

Other types of lung cancer: There are also other uncommon kinds of lung cancer in addition to the more common ones. A carcinoid tumor is one such example; it has a slow growth rate and develops from special lung cells. Pleural mesothelioma, which damages the inner layer of the lungs but is not truly an example of lung cancer, is another uncommon type. Additionally, a few kinds of lung sarcomas and lymphomas originate in different parts of the lungs. These require specialized treatment and doctors with experience in these rare cancer types to handle them effectively.

Signs and Symptoms of Lung Cancer

It’s important for people with past experiences of smoking or contact with cancer-causing factors, to be cautious because early-stage lung cancer often displays fairly low signs.

Understanding lung cancer’s late signs is essential as they can indicate an advanced stage of the cancer.

Early Signs of Lung Cancer:

  • Long-lasting cough that worsens over time
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Change in voice(Hoarseness)
  • Swelling in the face or neck
  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Pain in the chest while breathing or coughing
  • Common respiratory infections, like pneumonia or bronchitis.

Late Signs of Lung Cancer:

  • Difficulty in swallowing food
  • Advanced chest pain
  • Hoarseness in voice
  • Worsening of breath shortness
  • Blood coughing (hemoptysis)
  • Respiratory infections that do not go away.

Diagnosis of Lung Cancer in India

Imaging Tests: The following are some of the most common imaging tests used to diagnose lung cancer:

  • Chest X-ray: A basic image of the lungs that can be used to look for suspicious spots or tumors.
  • Computed Tomography (CT) Scan: It provides complete cross-sectional photographs of the chest, helping in the detection of tiny cancers.
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): This method is sometimes used to get more detailed images of lung cancers
  • Sputum Cytology: If you have a cough that doesn’t go away and spit out phlegm (mucus), doctors may take a small sample and examine it under a microscope. This allows them to determine whether cancer cells are present in the mucus.

Biopsy: A biopsy is an important step in confirming lung cancer. It involves taking out a tiny tissue sample from the lung for analysis under a microscope. A biopsy can be performed in several ways:

  • Bronchoscopy
  • Needle Biopsy
  • Thoracentesis

Staging: If lung cancer is diagnosed, additional tests may be conducted to determine the cancer’s stage and whether or not it has spread to different parts of the body.

Additional Tests: Some of the other tests are done to determine the stages of lung cancer such as:

  • Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan: Helps in the detection of cancer cells that might have spread to other regions within the body.
  • Bone Scan: Detects cancer that has spread to the bones.
  • Endobronchial Ultrasound (EBUS) or Mediastinoscopy: These procedures are used to biopsy the chest’s lymph nodes to determine whether or not the cancer has spread.

Treatment Options for Lung Cancer in India

The type and stage of the patient’s lung cancer, along with their physical health, all impact their treatment options.

Types of treatment available are:

  • Surgery: When lung cancer is detected early, doctors may perform surgery to remove the tumor. It’s like removing the unhealthy part to improve the health of the lungs.
  • Radiation Therapy: Powerful rays are used to destroy cancer cells to reduce tumor size before surgery, eliminate remaining cells after surgery, or treat symptoms if cancer spreads.
  • Chemotherapy: It’s like using certain medications to fight cancerous cells. These medications can either slow or stop the growth of cancer. They are sometimes used alone or in combination with surgery or radiation to ensure that the cancer has been removed.
  • Targeted Therapy: The treatment uses specialized tools to target harmful cancer cells while avoiding healthy cells.
  • Immunotherapy: Immunotherapy helps the immune system in recognizing and attacking cancer cells. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have been proven to be effective in the treatment of some advanced lung cancers.
  • Combination Therapy: In certain cases, doctors combine various treatments to give patients the best chance of overcoming cancer. Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy may be used simultaneously or consecutively.

Risk Factors in Lung Cancer

Common risks and complications in lung cancer treatment are:

  • Infections
  • Lung cancer risk increases with daily and lifetime smoking
  • Fluid accumulating in the chest
  • Bleeding
  • Breathing difficulties
  • Change in skin colour
  • Fatigue
  • Vomiting and nausea
  • Hair thinning and loss
  • Low red blood cell count
  • Gastrointestinal issues
  • Negative effects on the immune system
  • The side effects of combo

Best Lung Cancer Treatment Facilities in India

India stands out as a premier destination for medical tourism, especially for those seeking lung cancer treatment. The country hosts top-tier hospitals equipped with cutting-edge facilities and staffed by experts in the field. Renowned for their proficiency, these hospitals conduct advanced surgeries at significantly reduced costs compared to other nations. They adopt a holistic approach, meticulously assessing patients’ pre-surgery, employing minimally invasive techniques during procedures, and providing comprehensive post-operative care.

Medsurge India: Your Guide to Excellence in Medical Care

At Medsurge India, we specialise in facilitating medical tourism experiences in India, particularly for individuals seeking lung cancer treatment. Our mission is to streamline the entire process, offering assistance from appointment booking to post-treatment support. With us, patients can access the finest lung cancer treatment facilities in India, assured of compassionate care every step of the way.

Leading Lung Cancer Treatment Hospitals in India:

  • Fortis Hospital – Gurgaon
  • Indraprastha Apollo Hospital – New Delhi
  • Global Hospital – Chennai
  • MGM Healthcare – Chennai
  • Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital – Mumbai
  • Fortis Escorts Hospital – New Delhi
  • Artemis Hospital – Gurgaon
  • Marengo Asia Hospital – Gurugram

These hospitals are globally recognized for their excellence in medical care and have received accreditation from esteemed organizations, ensuring safety and quality standards.

Top Lung Cancer Treatment Specialists in India:

Finding the best lung cancer doctors in India can be daunting. However, with Medsurge India’s assistance, patients can easily access a curated list of top specialists renowned for their expertise and exceptional patient outcomes. Some of the leading lung cancer specialists include:

  • Niranjan Naik
  • Ankur Bahl
  • Deepak Jha
  • Sandeep Batra
  • Sameer Kaul

Cost of Lung Cancer Treatment in India:

The Lung Cancer Treatment Cost in India is significantly lower compared to many other countries. Treatment packages typically range from $16,000 to $20,000 USD, covering various services such as pre-treatment assessments, advanced investigations, surgical procedures, and hospital accommodations. However, costs may vary depending on factors like cancer type, stage, and treatment modality.

City-wise Lung Cancer Treatment Costs in India:

  • New Delhi: $1,400 – $25,500
  • Hyderabad: $1,200 – $24,800
  • Kolkata: $1,300 – $26,800
  • Gurgaon: $1,200 – $30,500
  • Bengaluru: $1,400 – $32,600
  • Pune: $1,200 – $28,500
  • Kochi: $1,200 – $25,500
  • Chennai: $1,200 – $29,300
  • Mumbai: $1,200 – $32,900

Also Read: Breast Cancer Treatment Cost in India

Success Rate of Lung Cancer Treatment in India:

The success rate of lung cancer treatment in India is approximately 98%, although outcomes may vary based on individual factors such as cancer stage and overall health condition. With advancements in medical approaches, patients can expect favorable prognoses and improved survival rates.

At Medsurge India, we ensure a seamless medical journey, providing patients with unparalleled care and support as they undergo treatment for lung cancer in India. Trust us for a compassionate and comprehensive healthcare experience.

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